Types of Hearing Loss

Hearing loss has many different causes. It can be caused by home or work related factors, it can be hereditary, or it can just be a part of the aging process. Hearing loss can be triggered by a blast of loud noise, infections, toxins, injury, or hereditary factors. The good news is that there are now solutions to successfully correct most types of hearing loss.


An infection that mainly affects that outer ear canal, and may also affect the pinna itself. A bacterial infection of this type often occurs during or after a vacation that involves swimming, and is also called “diver’s ear” or “suffer’s ear”. It is usually painful and causes a noticeable impairment of hearing.
An outer ear infection can be resolved by thoroughly cleaning and rinsing to remove any foreign bodies. Any inflammation can then usually be treated with medication.

The ear canal can be blocked by an overproduction of ear wax, or by inappropriate cleaning. A blockage of this type can cause severe reduction in hearing.
Ears that become blocked with wax can be rinsed with warm water by a GP or enT doctor.

Mechanical damage to the outer ear, or blockage of the ear canal can be caused by, for example, careless use of cotton swabs to clean the ear. If you feel you may have damaged your ear in this way, have your doctor examine the injury, and in the future use only clean warm water. It is generally advised to never use cotton swabs.


A viral or bacterial inflammation that is typically very painful. It is transmitted through the eustachian tubes from the nasal cavity, or through the bloodstream. Hearing in the affected ear is severely impaired during the infection. Acute infections of the middle ear can usually be treated by medication. Consult with your GP or enT doctor for the best course of action. Perforated ear drum - The ear drum can be damaged by foreign bodies, or by an infection. In some cases, perforation can result from a blow on the ear or a very loud bang. A hole in the ear drum causes deterioration in hearing. Thankfully, damage to the ear drum will often heal itself. It is important to keep the ear completely dry. Don’t let water get into the ear when you are washing your hair (for example). If the ear drum does not heal by itself, surgery will be necessary to reverse the hearing loss.

Otosclerosis causes ossification, which has an adverse effect on the mobility of the stapes. The result is a slowly developing loss of conductive hearing. This disorder is commonly accompanied by a ringing in the ears (tinnitus). Unfortunately, it is not possible to treat otosclerosis by medication currently. In certain cases, surgery is able to reduce hearing loss. However, in conductive hearing loss caused by otosclerosis, hearing can be greatly improved by a hearing aid.

Hearing loss caused by damage to the inner ear is called perceptive, or sensorineural, hearing loss. Age-related Hearing Loss (presbyacusis).
Age-relate hearing loss is caused by external factors - in particular, many years’ exposure to noise at home or at work. This exposure causes damage to the fine sensory hair cells, and thus affects the transmission of signals to the auditory nerves. Presbyacusis usually beings between the ages of 55 and 65, affecting the higher frequency races, and usually affects both ears.
Treatment of Presbyacusis using medication is not possible, but properly adjusted hearing aids can help to greatly compensate for hearing loss of this type.

Blast trauma occurs when the effects of a very loud noise cause damage to the inner ear. This can even happen if harmful noise is only of very brief duration (1 - 3 milliseconds). The result is a feeling of that the ears are blocked, a loss of hearing, or tinnitus. Hearing usually improves during the hours following the incident. However, there can be lasting damage to the hearing. Properly adjusted hearing aids can greatly improve the capability to hear well.

In medicine, the term ototoxicity refers to the harmful effects of substances on the inner ear, especially the sensory cells of the organs of hearing balance, or the corresponding cranial nerves.
Because it is ultimately the nerve cells that are affected, damage is usually permanent, lead to hearing loss or deafness with balance disorders. Properly adjusted hearing aids can be of great help in hearing loss of this type.